Simón Bolívar

Family tree of Simón Bolívar

South American and Central American politician

ColombianBorn Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco

Venezuelan military and political leader

Born on July 24, 1783 in Caracas , Venezuela

Died on December 17, 1830 in Santa Marta , Colombia

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Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar y Ponte Palacios y Blanco (English: BOL-iv-ər, -⁠ar, also US: BOH-liv-ar, Spanish: [siˈmom boˈliβaɾ] (listen); 24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830) was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led what are currently the countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Panama, Peru, and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire. He is known colloquially as El Libertador, or the Liberator of America.
Simón Bolívar was born in Caracas in the Captaincy General of Venezuela into a wealthy creole family, but lost both parents before he turned ten and lived in several households. As was common for men of upper-class families in his day, Bolívar was sent to be educated abroad, and lived in Spain. While living in Madrid from 1800 to 1802, he was introduced to Enlightenment philosophy and met María Teresa Rodríguez del Toro y Alaysa. The two married in 1802 and returned to Venezuela, where del Toro contracted yellow fever and died within a year of their nuptials. Bolívar traveled in 1803 to France as Napoleon established the First French Empire, then to Rome, where he famously swore to end Spanish rule in the Americas. Bolívar returned to Venezuela in 1807 and began to discuss Venezuelan independence with other wealthy creoles. Following the collapse of Spanish authority in the Americas as a result of Napoleon's invasion of the Iberian peninsula, Bolívar threw himself into revolutionary politics and became an active and zealous combatant in the Spanish American wars of independence.
Bolívar began his military career in 1810 as a militia officer in the Venezuelan War of Independence, fighting Spanish and more native Royalist forces for the first and second Venezuelan republics and the United Provinces of New Granada. After Spanish forces subdued New Granada in 1815, Bolívar was forced into exile in the Republic of Haiti, led by Haitian revolutionary Alexandre Pétion. Bolívar befriended Pétion and, after promising to abolish slavery in South America, received military support from Haiti. Returning to Venezuela, he established a third republic in 1817 and then crossed the Andes in 1819 to liberate New Granada. Bolívar and his allies decisively defeated the Spanish in New Granada in 1819, Venezuela and Panama in 1821, Ecuador in 1822, Peru in 1824, and Bolivia in 1825. Venezuela, New Granada, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama were merged into the state of Gran Colombia, with Bolívar president there and in Bolivia. Despite his best efforts, Bolívar could not hold Gran Colombia together against separatist, federalist inclinations in its member states and in 1830 he was removed from government and almost assassinated. That year, while waiting to board a ship for exile in Europe, Bolívar died of tuberculosis.
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Bolívar is regarded as a national and cultural icon throughout Latin America; the nations of Bolivia and Venezuela and their currencies are named after him. His legacy is diverse and far-reaching both within Latin America and beyond. He has been memorialized all over the world in the form of public art or street names and in popular culture.



Biography from Wikipedia (see original) under licence CC BY-SA 3.0


 

Geographical origins

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